FFCRA: Intersection of Emergency Paid Sick Leave, Paid E- FMLA, and FMLA Leave

By Bello Welsh LLP

As described in detail in our prior Alert, the federal government signed into law the Families First Coronavirus Response Act (FFCRA) to help workers impacted by the current COVID-19 health emergency.  Under the FFCRA, employees of businesses of fewer than 500 employees may be eligible for paid sick leave or paid family leave under certain COVID-19-related circumstances.

There are two types of paid leave available under the FFCRA—emergency paid sick leave and emergency paid family and medical leave (“E-FMLA”).   Click on the links for a summary of the Department of Labor’s guidance and for Q&A.

Emergency Paid Sick Leave Act (“EPSLA”)

EPSLA leave is available to all employees, regardless of tenure. Employees are eligible for this leave if they meet one of the following conditions:

  1. They are subject to a federal, state or local quarantine or isolation order related to COVID-19;
  2. They have been advised by a health care provider to self-quarantine due to concerns related to COVID-19;
  3. They are experiencing symptoms of COVID-19 and are seeking a medical diagnosis;
  4. They are caring for an individual[1] who is subject to a quarantine or isolation order or has been advised by a health care provider to self-quarantine;
  5. They are caring for a child because the child’s school or place of care is closed or the child’s care provider is unavailable due to a public health emergency; or
  6. They are experiencing any other substantially similar condition specified by the Secretary of Health and Human Services in consultation with the Secretary of the Treasury and the Secretary of Labor. No such specifications have yet been published.

If there is work available for an employee, but that employee cannot work (either in the office or remotely), that employee is entitled to EPSLA.  Importantly, an employee’s entitlement to and use of paid sick leave may not be used to reduce or eliminate any other right or benefit to which the employee is entitled under any law, collective bargaining agreement, or employer policy that existed prior to April 1, 2020 (the effective date of the FFCRA).  In other words, EPSLA cannot count against an employee’s balance or accrual of any other source or type of leave.  Moreover, employers and eligible employees may agree (where Federal or state law permits) to have paid leave supplement EPSLA pay so that the employee receives up to the full amount of his or her normal pay.  EPSLA leave also cannot be used retroactively – the law does not establish any right or entitlement to be paid for any unpaid or partially paid leave taken before April 1, 2020, even if that leave was taken for one of the six qualifying reasons listed above.

Emergency Family and Medical Leave Expansion Act (“E-FMLA”)

This leave is available to all employees who have been employed for at least 30 calendar days (including, in certain instances, rehired employees).  An employee is eligible for up to twelve weeks of E-FMLA leave if he or she is unable to work (either at the employer site or remotely) in order to care for a child[2] because the child’s school or place of care is closed or because their child’s childcare provider is unavailable due to the public health emergency (reason #5, above).

E-FMLA benefits run concurrently with EPSLA leave.  This means that if an employee takes two weeks of EPSLA leave to care for a child (under reason #5), the employee would be eligible to take an additional ten weeks of paid E-FMLA leave.  If, on the other hand, the employee took EPSLA leave for one of the other qualifying reasons, he or she would still be eligible for up to twelve weeks of E-FMLA leave; however, the first two weeks of the E-FMLA leave would be unpaid, unless the employee had accrued paid leave that could be used during that period.  If accrued leave was available, the employer and employee may agree to allow the employee to use accrued paid leave during that two-week period.

Thereafter, for the remaining period of E-FMLA leave, the employee may choose, and the employer may require, that accrued leave be used concurrently with E-FMLA leave.  In that instance, the employee must be paid the full amount to which he or she is entitled under existing paid leave laws or policies for the period of leave taken, up to 100% of regular pay (and the employer may claim the tax credit available under the FFCRA, even if the paid time off comes from the employee’s accrued leave bank).  If accrued leave is exhausted before the end of the E-FMLA benefits period, the employer must pay at least the required E-FMLA amount (which is capped at $200 per day).

Importantly, employees are only entitled to a total of twelve weeks of FMLA leave per the employer’s FMLA year, including E-FMLA, so if an employee has already taken some or all of his or her FMLA leave, their available E-FMLA leave will be reduced by the amount taken.  An employee is still eligible for the two weeks of paid sick leave, however, even if he or she has taken all twelve weeks of FMLA leave.

E-FMLA benefits will end on the earlier of the date on which the public health emergency ends or the employee receives full benefits under these laws.

[1] Of note, while the covered individuals are not limited to family members, the preamble to the DOL regulations states that “paid sick leave may not be taken to care for someone with whom the employee has no personal relationship.  Rather, the individual being cared for must be an immediate family member, roommate, or a similar person with whom the employee has a relationship that creates an expectation that the employee would care for the person if he or she self-quarantined or was quarantined.”

[2] While the E-FMLA statutory text specifies that the child must be under 18 years of age, the EPSLA does not have this limitation, and both laws refer to the definition of “son or daughter” under the FMLA, which includes not only children under 18, but those over 18 who are incapable of self-care because of a mental or physical disability.  The DOL has decided to interpret the E-FMLA and the EPSLA consistently with the FMLA.